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ADN*(Advanced Digital Network)Usually refers to a 56Kbps leased-line.

ADSL* (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line) A method for moving data over regular phone lines. An ADSL circuit is much faster than a regular phone connection, and the wires coming into the subscriber's premises are the same (copper) wires used for regular phone service. An ADSL circuit must be configured to connect two specific locations, similar to a leased line. A commonly discussed configuration of ADSL would allow a subscriber to receive data (download) at speeds of up to 1.544 megabits (not megabytes) per second, and to send (upload) data at speeds of 128 kilobits per second. Thus the Asymmetric part of the acronym.Another commonly discussed configuration would be symmetrical: 384 Kilobits per second in both directions. In theory DSL allows download speeds of up to 9 megabits per second and upload speeds of up to 640 kilobits per second. ADSL is often discussed as an alternative toISDN,allowing higher Speeds in cases where the connection is always to the same place.

Alias * That refers to a person or group of people on a network. For example, the mailing-list named NETGLOS is an alias for all the e-mail addresses on the NETGLOS subscribers' list at Whenever an e-mail message is sent to, it will automatically be forwarded to all the people on the mailing-list. Similarly, the address usually found on WWW sites, is an alias for the person responsible for maintaining that site. All e-mail sent to this address will be routed cordingly.

Anchor *In HTML, anchors mark the start and end of hypertext links.

Anonymous * See Also: FTP

Applet * A small Java program that can be embedded in an HTML page. Applets differ from full-fledged Java applications in that they are not allowed to access certain resources on the local computer, such as files and serial devices, and are restricted to accessing a limited set of other computers networked resources. The current rule is that an applet can only access the computer from which it was came from.

Archie * A tool (software) for finding files stored on anonymous FTP sites. You need to know the exact file name or a substring of it.

ARPANet *(Advanced Research Projects Agency Network) -- The precursor to the Internet. Developed in the late 60's and early 70's by the US Department of Defense as an experiment in wide-area-networking that would survive a nuclear war.

ASCII * (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) This is the de facto world-wide standard for the code numbers used by computers to represent all the upper and lower-case Latin letters, numbers, punctuation, etc. There are 128 standard ASCII codes each of which can be represented by a 7 digit binary number: 0000000 through.

Authentication * A security measure for checking a network user's identity.

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Backbone * high-speed line or series of connections that forms a major pathway within a network. The term is relative as a backbone in a small network will likely be much smaller than many non-backbone lines in a large network.

Bandwidth * Much stuff you can send through a connection. Usually measured in bits-per-second. A full page of English text is about 16,000 bits. A fast modem can move about 15,000 bits in one second. Full-motion full-screen video would require roughly 10,000,000 bits-per-second, depending on compression.

Baud * Common usage the baud rate of a modem is how many bits it can send or receive per second. Technically, baud is the number of times per second that the carrier signal shifts value - for example a 1200 bit-per-second modem actually runs at 300 baud, but it moves 4 bits per baud (4 x 300 = 1200 bits per second). BBS * (Bulletin Board System) -- A computerized meeting and announcement system that allows people to carry on discussions, upload and download files, and make announcements without the people being connected to the computer at the same time. There are many thousands (millions?) of BBS's around the world, most are very small, running on a single IBM clone PC with 1 or 2 phone lines. me are very large and the line between a BBS and a system like CompuServe gets crossed at some point, but it is not clearly drawn.

Binhex * (BINary HEXadecimal) -- A method for converting non-text files (non-ASCII) into ASCII. This is needed because Internet e-mail can only handle ASCII.

Bit * (Binary DigIT) -- A single digit number in base-2, in other words, either a 1 or a zero. The smallest unit of computerized data. Bandwidth is usually measured in bits-per-second.

BITNET * (Because It's Time NETwork (or Because It's There NETwork)) -- A network of educational sites separate from the Internet, but e-mail is freely exchanged between BITNET and the Internet. Listservs, the most popular form of e-mail discussion groups, originated on BITNET. BITNET machines are usually mainframes running the VMS operating system, and the network is probably the only international network that is shrinking.

Bookmark * A feature of most Web browsers. You can save frequently accessed links in a bookmark file, rather than have to look up the URL each time.

Bps * (Bits-Per-Second) A measurement of how fast data is moved from one place to another. A 28.8 modem can move 28,800 bits per second.

Browser * A Client program (software) that is used to look at various kinds of Internet resources.

BTW * (By The Way) A shorthand appended to a comment written in an online forum.

Bullet * In HTML, a bullet is a large dot used to separate listed items on a WWW page

Byte * A set of Bits that represent a single character. Usually there are 8 Bits in a Byte, sometimes more, depending on how the measurement is being made.

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Certificate * Authority An issuer of Security Certificates used in SSL connections

CGI * (Common Gateway Interface) -- A set of rules that describe how a Web Server communicates with another piece of software on the same machine, and how the other piece of software (the;CGI program) talks to the web server. Any piece of software can be a CGI program if it handles input and output according to the CGI standard. Usually a CGI program is a small program that takes data from a web server and does something with it, like putting the content of a form into an e-mail message, or turning the data into a database query.You can often see that a CGI program is being used by seeing

Cgi-Bin * In a URL, but not always cgi-bin The most common name of a directory on a web server in which CGI programs are stored. The bin part of ;cgi-bin; is a shorthand version of;binary;, because once upon a time, most programs were refered to as;binaries;. In real life, most programs found in cgi-bin directories are text files scripts that are executed by binaries located elsewhere on the same machine.

Checkbox * In HTML, a way to allow the user to interact with the material on a web page by clicking on a box or other input element.

Clickable image map * A map or graphic where certain parts of it are associated with different hyperlinks. For example, users can click on cities on a map of a country and bring up linked pictures and other information about each place. For example, Honolulu Community College has developed an interactive campus map that lets you get information about each building, its hours of services, etc.

Client * A software program that is used to contact and obtain data from a Server software program on another computer, often across a great distance. Each Client program is designed to work with one or more specific kinds of Server programs, and each Server requires a specific kind of Client. A Web Browser is a specific kind of Client.

Cookie * The most common meaning o Cookie on the Internet refers to a piece of information sent by a Web Server to a Web Browser that the Browser software is expected to save and to send back to the Server whenever the browser makes additional requests from the Server.Depending on the type of Cookie used, and the Browser's settings, the Browser may accept or not accept the Cookie,and may save the Cookie for either a short time or a long time. Cookies might contain information such as login or registration information, online shopping cart information, user preferences, etc.When a Server receives a request from a Browser that includes a Cookie, the Server is able to use the information stored in the Cookie. For example, the Server might customize what is sent back to the user, or keep a log of particular user's requests. Cookies are usually set to expire after a predetermined amount of time and are usually saved in memory until the Browser software is closed down, at which time they may be saved to disk if their expire time has not been reached. Cookies do not read your hard drive and send your life story to the CIA, but they can be used to gather more information about a user than would be possible without them

Cross-post * To post a message to several newsgroups simultaneously an action usually frowned on in Internet culture

Cyberpunk * Cyberpunk was originally a cultural sub-genre of science fiction taking place in a not-so-distant, dystopian, over-industrialized society. The term grew out of the work of William Gibson and Bruce Sterling and has evolved into a cultural label encompassing many different kinds of human, machine, and punk attitudes. It includes clothing and lifestyle choices as well.

Cyberspace * Term originated by author William Gibson in his novel Neuromancer the word Cyberspace is currently used to describe the whole range of information resources available through computer networks.

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Database * front end In the context of the Internet, this is an interface which integrates WWW applications with sophisticated database programs.

Data traffic * The number of TCP/IP packets traversing a network.

Dial-up *account A basic type of Internet account that allows you to to dial-up a provider'scomputer with a modem. These types of accounts usually have a UNIX or other command-line interface.

Dedicated line * A telecommunications line that lets your computer have a direct, permanent connection to the Internet

Digerati * The digital version of literati, it is a reference to a vague cloud of people seen to be knowledgeable, hip, or otherwise n-the-know in regards to the digital revolution.

Dithernet * A very common method of networking computers in a LAN. Ethernet will handle about 10,000,000 bits-per-second and can be used with almost any kind of computer.

DNS * Domain Name System A database system that translates an IP address into a domain name. For example, a numeric address like is converted into

Domain Name * The unique name that identifies an Internet site. Domain Names always have 2 or more parts, separated by dots. The part on the left is the most specific, and the part on the right is the most general. A given machine may have more than one Domain Name but a given Domain Name points to only one machine. For example, the domain names: can all refer to the same machine, but each domain name can refer to no more than one machine. Usually, all of the machines on a given Network will have the same thing as the right-hand portion of their Domain Names ( in the examples above). It is also possible for a Domain Name to exist but not be connected to an actual machine. This is often done so that a group or business can have an Internet e-mail address without having to stablish a real Internet site. In these cases, some real Internet machine must handle the mail on behalf of the listed Domain Name.

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E-mail * (Electronic Mail) Messages, usually text, sent from one person to another via computer. E-mail can also be sent automatically to a large number of addresses (Mailing List). Electronic mall * A virtual shopping mall where you can browse and buy products and services online

Electronic storefront * A virtual space in an electronic mall. This consists of space on a server (usually at a web site) where html documents are stored.

Embedded hyperlink * A hyperlink that is incorporated into a line of text.

Emoticon * A symbol to compensate for the absence of nonverbal clues when commicating on the Internet For example signifies a"grin", :} or :-} a "smile", when inserted in the text of an e-mail message and alerts the reader not to take it seriously. Encryption * A way of making data unreadable to everyone except the receiver. An increasingly common way of sending credit card numbers over the Internet when conducting commercial transactions

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FAQ * (Frequently Asked Questions) -- FAQs are documents that list and answer the most common questions on a particular subject. There are hundreds of FAQs on subjects as diverse as Pet Grooming and Cryptography. FAQs are usually written by people who have tired of answering the same question over and over.

FDDI * (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) -- A standard for transmitting data on optical fiber cables at a rate of around 100,000,000 bits-per-second (10 times as fast as Ethernet, about twice as fast as T-3).

Feedback * form Sections of html documents that accept user input. You can usually input comments, order products, or search for information with these forms.

Finger * An Internet software tool for locating people on other Internet sites. Finger is also sometimes used to give access to non-personal information, but the most common use is to see if a person has an account at a particular Internet site. Many sites do not allow incoming Finger requests, but many do.

Fire Wall * A combination of hardware and software that separates a LAN into two or more parts for security purposes.

Flame * Originally, flame meant to carry forth in a passionate manner in the spirit of honorable debate. Flames most often involved the use of flowery language and flaming well was an art form. More recently flame has come to refer to any kind of derogatory comment no matter how witless or crude.

Flame War * When an online discussion degenerates into a series of personal attacks against the debators, rather than discussion of their positions. A heated exchange.

Form support * Not all browsers, nor all servers can handle the use of forms where the reader can give input, for instance his address, or a question. Browsers and servers that allow this, do have

Freenet * An organization committed to making Internetaccess available to the general public for free or for a small contribution.

Freeware * Free software available on the Internet that can be redistributed.

FTP * (File Transfer Protocol) -- A very common method of moving files between two Internet sites. FTP is a special way to login to another Internet site for the purposes of retrieving and/or sending files. There are many Internet sites that have stablished publicly accessible repositories of material that can be obtained using FTP, by logging in using the account name anonymous, thus these sites are called anonymous ftp servers.

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Gateway * The technical meaning is a hardware or software set-up that translates between two dissimilar protocols, for example Prodigy has a gateway that translates between its internal, proprietary e-mail format and Internet e-mail format. Another, sloppier meaning of gateway is to describe any mechanism for providing access to another system, e.g. AOL might be called a gateway to the Internet.

Gopher * A widely successful method of making menus of material available over the Internet. Gopher is a Client and Server style program, which requires that the user have a Gopher Client program. Although Gopher spread rapidly across the globe in only a couple of years, it has been largely supplanted by Hypertext, also known as WWW (World Wide Web). There are still thousands of Gopher Servers on the Internet and we can expect they will remain for a while.

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Hit * In the context of the WWW, it refers to the act of accessing an htmldocument on a server.

Home Page * (or Homepage) Several meanings. Originally, the web page that your browser is set to use when it starts up. The more common meaning refers to the main web page for a business, organization, person or simply the main page out of a collection of web pages, e.g. "Check out so-and-so's new Home Page." Another sloppier use of the term refers to practically any web page as a "homepage," e.g. "That web site has 65 homepages and none of them are interesting.

Host * Any computer on a network that is a repository for services available to other computers on the network. It is quite common to have one host machine provide several services, such as WWW and USENET.

Hotlist * A list of frequently accessed URLs

Hotspot * A place in a document that contains an embedded hyperlink.

HTML * (HyperText Markup Language) -- The coding language used to create Hypertext documents for use on the World Wide Web. HTML looks a lot like old-fashioned typesetting code, where you surround a block of text with codes that indicate how it should appear, additionally, in HTML you can specify that a block of text, or a word, is linked to another file on the Internet. HTML files are meant to be viewed using a World Wide Web Client Program, such as Netscape

Hyperlink * These are links in HTML documents that you can click on to go to other Web resources.

Hypermedia * The multimedia links on the Web that lead to sound, graphics, video, or text resources

HTTP * (HyperText Transport Protocol) -- The protocol for moving hypertext files across the Internet. Requires a HTTP client program on one end, and an HTTP server program on the other end. HTTP is the most important protocol used in the World Wide Web (WWW).

Hypertext * Generally, any text that contains links to other documents - words or phrases in the document that can be chosen by a reader and which cause another document to be retrieved and displayed.

Back Information packet * A bundle of data sent over a network. The protocol used determines the size and makeup of the packet.

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Inline image * A built-in graphic that is displayed by the browser as part of an HTMLdocument and is retrieved along with it.

IMHO * (In My Humble Opinion) -- A shorthand appended to a comment written in an online forum, IMHO indicates that the Writer is aware that they are expressing a debatable view, probably on a subject already under discussion. One of may such shorthands in common use online, especially in discussion forums.

Internet * (Upper case I) The vast collection of inter-connected networks that all use the TCP/IP protocols and that evolved from the ARPANET of the late 60's and early 70's. The Internet now (July 1995) connects roughly 60,000 independent networks into a vast global internet.

Internet * (Lower case i) Any time you connect 2 or more networks together, you have an internet - as in inter-national or inter-state.

Internet account * An account with an ISP that allows you to access the Internet

IP address * The Internet Protocol address - the numeric address that is translated into a domain name by the DNS

Internet service provider * A company that provides various kinds of Internet accounts to organizations and individuals

Intranet * A private network inside a company or organization that uses the same kinds of software that you would find on the public Internet, but that is only for internal use. As the Internet has become more popular many of the tools used on the Internet are being used in private networks, for example, many companies have web servers that are available only to employees. Note that an Intranet may not actually be an internet -- it may simply be a network.

Internet *, Network IP Number Sometimes called a dotted quad. A unique number consisting of 4 parts separated by dots, e.g. Every machine that is on the Internet has a unique IP number - if a machine does not have an IP number, it is not really on the Internet. Most machines also have one or more Domain Names that are easier for people to remember.

IRC * (Internet Relay Chat) -- Basically a huge multi-user live chat facility. There are a number of major IRC servers around the world which are linked to each other. Anyone can create a channel and anything that anyone types in a given channel is seen by all others in the channel. Private channels can (and are) created for multi-person conference calls.

ISDN * (Integrated Services Digital Network) -- Basically a way to move more data over existing regular phone lines. ISDN is rapidly becoming available to much of the USA and in most markets it is priced very comparably to standard analog phone circuits. It can provide speeds of roughly 128,000 bits-per-second over regular phone lines. In practice, most people will be limited to 56,000 or 64,000 bits-per-second.

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Java * Java is a network-oriented programming language invented by Sun Microsystems that is specifically designed for writing programs that can be safely downloaded to your computer through the Internet and immediately run without fear of viruses or other harm to your computer or files. Using small Java programs (called "Applets"), Web pages can include functions such as animations, calculators, and other fancy tricks. We can expect to see a huge variety of features added to the Web using Java, since you can write a Java program to do almost anything a regular computer program can do, and then include that Java program in a Web page.

JDK * (Java Development Kit) -- A software development package from Sun Microsystems that implements the basic set of tools needed to write, test and debug Java applications and applets See Also: Applet , Java Kilobyte * A thousand bytes. Actually, usually 1024 (2^10) bytes.

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LAN * (Local Area Network) -- A computer network limited to the immediate area, usually the same building or floor of a building.

Leased-line * Refers to a phone line that is rented for exclusive 24-hour, 7 -days-a-week use from your location to another location. The highest speed data connections require a leased line.

Listserv * The most common kind of maillist, Listservs originated on BITNET but they are now common on the

Internet. load * On the WWW, HTMLdocuments and graphics are loaded into the browser whenever an URL is accessed.

log file* A file that keeps track of network connections.

Login * Noun or a verb. Noun: The account name used to gain access to a computer system. Not a secret (contrast with Password). Verb: The act of entering into a computer system, e.g. Login to the WELL and then go to the GBN conference.

logon * The process of connecting to a network or remote system.

logoff * To disconnect from a network or remote system.

logout * To type logout, or a similar word (e.g. "exit", "quit". etc.) in order to disconnect from a network M Back

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Mail-bomb * The flooding of an e-mail address with (usually angry) messages.

Mailbot * An e-mail server that automatically responds to requests for information.

Mail-filter * A program that allows a user to sort e-mail messages according to information contained in the header.

Mail list * (or Mailing List) A (usually automated) system that allows people to send e-mail to one address, whereupon their message is copied and sent to all of the other subscribers to the maillist. In this way, people who have many different kinds of e-mail access can participate in discussions together.

Megabyte * A million bytes. A thousand kilobytes.

MIME * (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) -- The standard for attaching non-text files to standard Internet mail messages. Non-text files include graphics, spreadsheets, formatted word-processor documents, sound files, etc. An email program is said to be MIME Compliant if it can both send and receive files using the MIME standard. When non-text files are sent using the MIME standard they are converted (encoded) into text - although the resulting text is not really readable. Generally speaking the MIME standard is a way of specifying both the type of file being sent (e.g. a Quicktime™ video file), and the method that should be used to turn it back into its original form. Besides email software, the MIME standard is also universally used by Web Servers to identify the files they are sending to Web Clients, in this way new file formats can be accommodated simply by updating the Browsers' list of pairs of MIME-Types and appropriate software for handling each type.

Modem * (MOdulator, DEModulator) -- A device that you connect to your computer and to a phone line, that allows the computer to talk to other computers through the phone system. Basically, modems do for computers what a telephone does for humans.

Moderated mailing-list * A mailing-list where messages are first sent to the list owner before they are distributed to all the subscribers.

MOO * (Mud, Object Oriented) -- One of several kinds of multi-user role-playing environments, so far only text-based.

Mosaic * The first WWW browser that was available for the Macintosh, Windows, and UNIX all with the same interface. Mosaic really started the popularity of the Web. The source-code to Mosaic has been licensed by several companies and there are several other pieces of software as good or better than Mosaic, most notably, Netscape.

MUD * (Multi-User Dungeon or Dimension) -- A (usually text-based) multi-user simulation environment. Some are purely for fun and flirting, others are used for serious software development, or education purposes and all that lies in between. A significant feature of most MUDs is that users can create things that stay after they leave and which other users can interact with in their absence, thus allowing a world to be built gradually and collectively.

MUSE * (Multi-User Simulated Environment) -- One kind of MUD - usually with little or no violence. MUD N Back

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Navigate * To move around on the WWW by following hypertext paths from document to document on different computers

Netiquette * The etiquette on the Internet.

Netizen * Derived from the term citizen, referring to a citizen of the Internet, or someone who uses networked resources. The term connotes civic responsibility and participation.

Netscape * A WWW Browser and the name of a company. The Netscape (tm) browser was originally based on the Mosaic program developed at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA). Netscape has grown in features rapidly and is widely recognized as the best and most popular web browser. Netscape corporation also produces web server software.Netscape provided major improvements in speed and interface over other browsers, and has also engendered debate by creating new elements for the HTML language used by Web pages -- but the Netscape extensions to HTML are not universally supported. The main author of Netscape, Mark Andreessen, was hired away from the NCSA by Jim Clark, and they founded a company called Mosaic Communications and soon changed the name to Netscape Communications Corporation.

Network * Any time you connect 2 or more computers together so that they can share resources, you have a computer network. Connect 2 or more networks together and you have an internet.

Newsfeed * ISPs get their newsgroups from different newsfeeds, or news sources, by transferring them over the Internet, or other networks.

Newsgroup * The name for discussion groups on USENET.

Newsreader *Application software for reading and posting articles to newsgroups. NIC * (Networked Information Center) -- Generally, any office that handles information for a network. The most famous of these on the Internet is the InterNIC, which is where new domain names are registered.

Node * Any single computer connected to a network.

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Online * When a user is connected to a network, they are described as being online.

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Packet Switching * The method used to move data around on the Internet. In packet switching, all the data coming out of a machine is broken up into chunks, each chunk has the address of where it came from and where it is going. This enables chunks of data from many different sources to co-mingle on the same lines, and be sorted and directed to different routes by special machines along the way. This way many people can use the same lines at the same time.

Password * A code used to gain access to a locked system. Good passwords contain letters and non-letters and are not simple combinations such as virtue7. A good password might be: Hot$1-6

Platform * The type of computer or operating system on which a software application runs. For example, some common platforms are PC, Macintosh, Unix, and NeXT.

POP * Two commonly used meanings: Point of Presence and Post Office Protocol. A Point of Presence usually means a city or location where a network can be connected to, often with dialup phone lines. So if an Internet company says they will soon have a POP in Belgrade, it means that they will soon have a local phone number in Belgrade and/or a place where leased lines can connect to their network. A second meaning, Post Office Protocol refers to the way e-mail software such as Eudora gets mail from a mail server. When you obtain a SLIP, PPP, or shell account you almost always get a POP account with it, and it is this POP account that you tell your e-mail software to use to get your mail.

Port * 3 meanings. First and most generally, a place where information goes into or out of a computer, or both. E.g. the serial port on a personal computer is where a modem would be connected. On the Internet port often refers to a number that is part of a URL, appearing after a colon (:) right after the domain name. Every service on an Internet server listens on a particular port number on that server. Most services have standard port numbers, e.g. Web servers normally listen on port 80. Services can also listen on non-standard ports, in which case the port number must be specified in a URL when accessing the server, so you might see a URL of the form: gopher:// shows a gopher server running on a non-standard port (the standard gopher port is 70). Finally, port also refers to translating a piece of software to bring it from one type of computer system to another, e.g. to translate a Windows program so that is will run on a Macintosh.

Post * Subscribers to newsgroups and mailing lists take part in discussions by sending, or posting their articles or comments online.

Postmaster * An alias on a mail server for administering routing of e-mail. Preference setting * A set of parameters on software tools, especially WWW browsers, that allows the user to attach a signature file to e-mail or newsgroup messages, change the colour and appearance of text, etc.

Protocol * A specification that describes how computers will talk to each other on a network.

Posting * A single message entered into a network communications system. E.g. A single message posted to a newsgroup or message board.

PPP * (Point to Point Protocol) -- Most well known as a protocol that allows a computer to use a regular telephone line and a modem to make TCP/IP connections and thus be really and truly on the Internet. R Back

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Radio button * Used in forms to indicate a list of items. Only one button can be selected at one time. Here is an example: Animal Vegetable Mineral

Real-time chat * This is one use of the Internet that allows live conversation between by typing on a computer terminal. The most common tools are Talk and IRC (International Relay Chat).

Remote login * It is possible to login to a remote computer by using an application program based on TELNET - a terminal emulation protocol made for this purpose. The user can therefore enter commands on a keyboard attached to their local computer and access files etc. on a remote computer that may be located anywhere in the world.

RFC * (Request For Comments) -- The name of the result and the process for creating a standard on the Internet. New standards are proposed and published on line, as a Request For Comments. The Internet Engineering Task Force is a consensus-building body that facilitates discussion, and eventually a new standard is established, but the reference number/name for the standard retains the acronym RFC, e.g. the official standard for e-mail is RFC 822.

Router * A special-purpose computer (or software package) that handles the connection between 2 or more networks. Routers spend all their time looking at the destination addresses of the packets passing through them and deciding which route to send them on.

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Security Certificate * A chunk of information (often stored as a text file) that is used by the SSL protocol to establish a secure connection. Security Certificates contain information about who it belongs to, who it was issued by, a unique serial number or other unique identification, valid dates, and an encrypted "fingerprint" that can be used to verify the contents of the certificate. In order for an SSL connection to be created both sides must have a valid Security Certificate.

Script * In the context of the WWW, a (gateway) script is a program that runs on a Web server and processes requests based on input from the browser.

Search engine * Programs on the Internet that allow users to search through massive databases of information.

Server * A computer, or a software package, that provides a specific kind of service to client software running on other computers. The term can refer to a particular piece of software, such as a WWW server, or to the machine on which the software is running, e.g.Our mail server is down today, that's why e-mail isn't getting out. A single server machine could have several different server software packages running on it, thus providing many different servers to clients on the network.

Server-side include * A file, or value of an environmental variable, that is included in an HTML document, so that information such as last date modified, file size, author etc. can be automatically included.

Shareware * Software available for downloading on the Internet that you can try before you buy. Users who want to continue to use the program are expected to pay a registration fee (rarely more than U.S. $100). In return they get documentation, technical support, and any updated versions.

Shell account * A UNIX-based account that allows an indirect, command-line connection to the Internet.

Signature file * A file automatically attached to outgoing e-mail messages and postings to newsgroups.

SLIP * (Serial Line Internet Protocol) -- A standard for using a regular telephone line (a serial line) and a modem to connect a computer as a real Internet site. SLIP is gradually being replaced by PPP.

SMDS * (Switched Multimegabit Data Service) -- A new standard for very high-speed data transfer.

SNMP * (Simple Network Management Protocol) -- A set of standards for communication with devices connected to a TCP/IP network. samples of these devices include routers, hubs, and switches. A device is said to be "SNMP compatible" if it can be monitored and/or controlled using SNMP messages. SNMP messages are known as "PDU's" - Protocol Data Units. Devices that are SNMP compatible contain SNMP "agent" software to receive, send, and act upon SNMP messages. Software for managing devices via SNMP are available for every kind of commonly used computer and are often bundled along with the device they are designed to manage. Some SNMP software is designed to handle a wide variety of devices.

Spam (or Spamming) * An inappropriate attempt to use a mailing list, or USENET or other networked communications facility as if it was a broadcast medium (which it is not) by sending the same message to a large number of people who didn't ask for it. The term probably comes from a famous Monty Python skit which featured the word spam repeated over and over. The term may also have come from someone's low opinion of the food product with the same name, which is generally perceived as a generic content-free waste of resources. (Spam is a registered trademark of Hormel Corporation, for its processed meat product.) E.g. Mary spammed 50 USENET groups by posting the same message to each.

SQL * (Structured Query Language) -- A specialized programming language for sending queries to databases. Most industrial-strength and many smaller database applications can be addressed using SQL. Each specific application will have its own version of SQL implementing features unique to that application, but all SQL-capable databases support a common subset of SQL.

SSL * (Secure Sockets Layer) -- A protocol designed by Netscape Communications to enable encrypted, authenticated communications across the Internet. SSL used mostly (but not exclusively) in communications between web browsers and web servers. URL's that begin with "https" indicate that an SSL connection will be used. SSL provides 3 important things: Privacy, Authentication, and Message Integrity. In an SSL connection each side of the connection must have a Security Certificate, which each side's software sends to the other. Each side then encrypts what it sends using information from both its own and the other side's Certificate, ensuring that only the intended recipient can de-crypt it, and that the other side can be sure the data came from the place it claims to have come from, and that the message has not been tampered with.

Subnet mask * A number used to identify a subnetwork so that an IP address can be shared on a LAN (Local Area Network).

Surf * To search for information in the cyberspace reality of the WWW by navigating in a nonlinear way.

Sysop * (System Operator) -- Anyone responsible for the physical operations of a computer system or network resource. A System Administrator decides how often backups and maintenance should be performed and the System Operator performs those tasks. T Back

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Tag * Tags are the codes used to format HTML documents for the WWW. There are both single and compound tags. For example, the single code for a line break is <br>, whereas for bold text, there are compound tags that require both an initial and a closing code: <b> </b>

T-1 * A leased-line connection capable of carrying data at 1,544,000 bits-per-second. At maximum theoretical capacity, a line could move a megabyte in less than 10 seconds. That is still not fast enough for full-screen, full-motion video, for which you need at least 10,000,000 bits-per-second. T-1 is the fastest speed commonly used to connect networks to the Internet.

T-3 * A leased-line connection capable of carrying data at 44,736,000 bits-per-second. This is more than enough to do full-screen, full-motion video.

TCP/IP * (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) -- This is the suite of protocols that defines the Internet. Originally designed for the UNIX operating system, TCP/IP software is now available for every major kind of computer operating system. To be truly on the Internet, your computer must have TCP/IP software.

Telnet * The command and program used to login from one Internet site to another. The telnet command/program gets you to the login: prompt of another host.

Terminal * A device that allows you to send commands to a computer somewhere else. At a minimum, this usually means a keyboard and a display screen and some simple circuitry. Usually you will use terminal software in a personal computer - the software pretends to be (emulates) a physical terminal and allows you to type commands to a computer somewhere else.

Terminal Server * A special purpose computer that has places to plug in many modems on one side, and a connection to a LAN or host machine on the other side. Thus the terminal server does the work of answering the calls and passes the connections on to the appropriate node. Most terminal servers can provide PPP or SLIP services if connected to the Internet.

Text-based browser * A browser that cannot handle hypermedia files.

TTFN * (Ta Ta For Now) -- A shorthand appended to a comment written in an online forum.

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Under construction * A term used to describe a WWW site that is still being developed. A small graphic like is often affixed to the pages or parts still being created or modified.

UNIX * A computer operating system (the basic software running on a computer, underneath things like word processors and spreadsheets). UNIX is designed to be used by many people at the same time (it is multi-user) and has TCP/IP built-in. It is the most common operating system for servers on the Internet.

URL * (Uniform Resource Locator) -- The standard way to give the address of any resource on the Internet that is part of the World Wide WebWWW). A URL looks like this: or telnet:// or news:new.newusers.questions etc. The most common way to use a URL is to enter into a WWW browser program, such as Netscape, or Lynx.

Username * The name assigned to users of a computer network. By convention, default usernames usually consist of a person's initial(s) plus their family name. For example, if your name is Ricardo Garcia, your username would be rgarcia. Typing your username on the computer screen is part of the login procedure and identifies you to the computer system.

USENET * A world-wide system of discussion groups, with comments passed among hundreds of thousands of machines. Not all USENET machines are on the Internet, maybe half. USENET is completely decentralized, with over 10,000 discussion areas, called newsgroups.

UUENCODE * (Unix to Unix Encoding) -- A method for converting files from Binary to ASCII (text) so that they can be sent across the Internet via e-mail. See Also: Binhex , MIME

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Veronica * (Very Easy Rodent Oriented Net-wide Index to Computerized Archives) -- Developed at the University of Nevada, Veronica is a constantly updated database of the names of almost every menu item on thousands of gopher servers. The Veronica database can be searched from most major gopher menus.

Viewer * Most browsers use helper applications, sometimes called "viewers," to display full-size graphics and play sound and video clips. These are separate applications that the browser initiates after it has downloaded the image or clip. These applications generally need to be acquired separately. The most complete collection of these applications is at in the /Web/Mosaic/Mac/Helpers, /Web/Mosaic/Unix/viewers and /Web/Mosaic/Windows/viewers directories.

Virtual * An adjective that refers to objects, activities, etc that exist or are carried on in cyberspace. For example, on the WWW you can find virtual or electronic malls and storefronts.

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WAIS * (Wide Area Information Servers) -- A commercial software package that allows the indexing of huge quantities of information, and then making those indices searchable across networks such as the Internet. A prominent feature of WAIS is that the search results are ranked (scored) according to how relevant the hits are, and that subsequent searches can find more stuff like that last batch and thus refine the search process.

WAN * (Wide Area Network) -- Any internet or network that covers an area larger than a single building or campus.

Web * See Also: WWW

Webmaster * The person responsible for administering a Web site.

WWW * (World Wide Web) -- Two meanings - First, loosely used: the whole constellation of resources that can be accessed using Gopher, FTP, HTTP, telnet, USENET, WAIS and some other tools. Second, the universe of hypertext servers (HTTP servers) which are the servers that allow text, graphics, sound files, etc. to be mixed together.

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